Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Hard Times Essay Example for Free

Tough situations Essay Dickens presents his analysis of the instruction for the working class in a mocking way. He has made the study hall as a processing plant. The reason for the training in Coketown is to uncover the blamelessness and creative mind of small kids so they will develop into utilitarian robots anticipating simply the drudgery of mechanical life. Dickens utilizes explicit techniques to put his point across of terrible instruction by utilizing negative perspectives. This is finished with misrepresentation since he needs the peruser to think equivalent to what he suspects as much it appears as though training was extraordinary and serious. In Hard Times, the educators satisfy the extreme showing aptitudes as they simply need the little vessels to be loaded up with realities. Dickens likewise presents a difference between two youngsters to show how distinctively every kid gets rewarded in light of their experience or their mentality towards things other than realities. Another strategy that he utilizes is making the characters stand apart through their names to represent their character. All through parts 1-3, Dickens accentuates on the word realities since he needs to constantly present and reprimand the instruction for the working class. Presently, what I need is, Facts. Show these young men and young ladies only Facts. Realities alone are needed in life This is the initial sentence of the novel and straight away you have an obscure thought of the radicalism of instructing. Likewise the word actuality is in capital letters and this implies the significance of adapting only realities. The presentation of the instructor has a great deal of embellishment close by. Thomas Gradgrind is a white collar class, independent man. A man of real factors a man of realities and estimations. Dickens has made this character an extremely hard and cold instructor who comprehends what he needs from the understudies. He appeared to be a sort of gun stacked to the gag with realities Dickens utilizes military symbolism to show how the educator needs to dispose of youth creative mind. He appeared to be a stirring contraption, as well, accused of a dismal mechanical substitute for the delicate youthful minds that should have been raged away. Dickens has portrayed this as a material science analyze in light of the fact that stirring is the procedure named after Galvan in the incitement of creature tissue by electric flows. However, for this situation it is the small kids that are being animated with verifiable flows. Dickens has made the instructor to be exceptionally coldblooded and merciless and this is to introduce his analysis on the training for the working class since he obviously can't help contradicting this idea of educating and he needs the perusers to feel a similar route by utilizing the distinctive language procedures and this is for the most part done through embellishment.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

The Determinant of Economics Growth in the Emerging Markets

MSc BUSINESS ECONOMIC AND FINANCE Title of Project The determinant of monetary development in developing markets: A contextual investigation of China. Tarik TOUAT Student ID: 10034757 August 2011 Project Supervisor: Dr. Helen Solomon. Unique China has appreciated a fast monetary development over the previous decades. The noteworthy development was driven by a few variables. This examination expects to decide those elements which added to extraordinary financial development of China and show the relationship with the monetary development by an exactly investigation.The Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) technique is applied so as to assess a development model utilizing a period arrangement information from 1984 to 2009. The outcomes shows that exchange transparency, government size and swelling significantly affect monetary development. Then again, remote direct speculations, the degree of human capital and rate of return have minor effect on monetary development in China. The relationship is built up however the vector blunder adjustment model (VECM), the finding is that exchange transparency, government size and expansion positively affected GDP of China over the long haul. Comparable paper: Why Nations Fail Summary Chapter 5Word record: 13. 112 words. Affirmations Allow me to pay tribute to my administrator, Dr. Solomon for generously managing this investigation and giving her time and her insight to the achievement of this venture. I accept this open door to thanks my senior sibling Arezki TOUAT who was a model of progress and steady wellspring of inspiration; I’m here to offer my earnest thanks and I want him to enjoy all that life has to offer for his big day. Devotion I committed this work to my folks Mouloud and Saliha TOUAT, who have contributed in an unprecedented route to my studies.To my more youthful sister Louiza TOUAT who is extraordinary for me. Chapter by chapter guide 1INTRODUCTION6 1. 1Main objective7 1. 2Organization of the study7 2OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE ECONOMY8 2. 1Geopolitical qualities of China9 2. 1. 1Population9 2. 2Economic changes in China10 3REVIEW OF LITERATURE12 3. 1Growth models12 3. 1. 1Basic Economic Growth Model1 2 3. 1. 2The Harrod-Domar model13 3. 1. 3Exogenous development Solow model14 3. 1. 4The enlarged Solow-MRW15 3. 1. 5The development bookkeeping model16 3. 2The determinants of growth17 3. 2. 1Foreign direct investment17 3. 2. Exchange Openness19 3. 2. 3Human capital20 3. 2. 4Government size21 3. 2. 5Inflation22 3. 2. 6Infrastructure23 3. 2. 7Return on venture (Portfolio investment)24 4DATA AND METHODOLOGY25 4. 1Presentation of the information and factual analysis25 4. 2Description of the variable26 4. 2. 1GDP per Capita26 4. 2. 2Foreign Direct Investment Net Inflows (% of GDP)27 4. 2. 3Trade openness28 4. 2. 4School enrolment, tertiary29 4. 2. 5General government last utilization expenditure30 4. 2. 6Inflation31 4. 2. 7Portfolio venture, bonds32 4. 2. 8Electric force consumption33 4. Clear Statistics34 4. 4Methodology35 4. 4. 1Estimation of the general model35 4. 4. 2The conjectured connections among GDP and its determinant36 5MODEL ESTIMATION AND FINDING37 5. 1Testing For Stationar y utilizing the Augmented Dickey Fuller Test37 5. 1. 1Results of the stationarity test. 39 5. 2Estimation of a Short-Run Growth Model for China41 5. 3Results of Robustness Tests44 5. 3. 1Testing for autocorrelation:44 5. 3. 2Testing for hetereoskedasticity:45 5. 3. 3Testing for non-direct practical form46 5. 4Estimating a since quite a while ago run development model for China47 5. 4. Testing for Co-combination: Engle-Granger Approach47 5. 4. 2Results utilizing Engle and Granger Approach49 5. 4. 3Result of Johansen co-joining test. 52 5. 4. 4Vector amendment model:55 6CONCLUSION59 LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES TABLES Table 1: Literature audit on outside direct speculation. 18 Table 2: Literature audit on swelling. 22 Table 3: Literature survey on return on investment24 Table 4: Descriptive measurement. 34 Table 5: ADF Test Statistics in levels39 Table 6: ADF Test Statistics in first difference40 Table 7: Estimation of the general development model by OLS41Table 8: Estimation of the mis erly model43 Table 9: Summary of the outcomes from test for autocorrelation44 Table 10: Summary of the outcomes from test for hetereoskedasticity45 Table 11: Summary of the outcomes from test for non-direct useful form46 Table 12: Testing the residuals from stationarity. 49 Table 13: Estimation of the Error Correction model 549 Table 14: Selecting the Appropriate Lag Length52 Table 15: Determining the quantity of co-mix vector with the Trace test53 Table 16: Determining the quantity of co-joining vector with the Maximum Eigenvalue test53Table 17: Unrestricted Johansen54 Table 18: Vector Error Correction Estimates56 FIGURES Figure 1: China ostensible GDP per capita26 Figure 2: China-Foreign direct investment27 Figure 3: China - Trade transparency. 28 Figure 4:China-School enrolment, tertiary29 Figure 5: China government last utilization consumption. 30 Figure 6: Inflation in China31 Figure 7: Portfolio investment32 Figure 8: Infrastructure33 Figure 9: Graphs for stationarity in level . 62 Figure 10: Graphs for stationarity in first contrast. 63 LIST OF ACCRONYMS GDP: Gross Domestic Product.GNP: Gross National Product. FDI: Foreign Direct Investment. return on initial capital investment: Return On Investment. BRIC: Brazil, Russia, India and China. WTO: World exchange Organization. OECD: Organization for Economic Co-activity and Development US$: United State Dollar CIA : Central Intelligence Agency ADF: Augmented Dickey-Fuller. OLS: Ordinary Least Square. VAR: Vector Autoregression Model VECM: Vector Error Correction Model. NLLS: Non-straight least squares AR: Auto Regressive Models H0: Null theory H1: The elective speculation I (0): Integrated of request 0 (stationary).I (1): Integrated of request 1 (fixed). TFP: Total Factor Productivity. Part 1 INTRODUCTION In a decades ago, we have seen new financial force rise up out of low level monetary improvement to generally significant level of financial development. Among these rising economies are Brazil, Russia, Indi a and China (the BRIC). In the course of recent decades, creating nations have posted high paces of financial development. This has changed them into developing economies. There are numerous components that went about as determinants of this high GDP development pace of the past moderate developing creating countries.Chinese economy is the biggest of the rising economies. As a matter of fact, China passed Japan and become the second biggest economy on the planet after United States of America. Subhash Chandra Jain (2006) characterizes developing economy as countries with social or business movement during the time spent fast development and industrialization. In view of information from Dow Jones arrangement (2010) there are around 35 developing markets on the planet with the economies of China and India viewed as the biggest. China is standing out of developing economies. Their financial development has been pushed by numerous factors.The monetary significance of China and its proc eeded with accomplishment in posting high monetary development rates makes it a perfect case for examining the determinants of financial development in rising economies. China has all the attributes of a rising economy. It faces the numerous difficulties that all the developing economies ceaselessly face and which go about as the greatest obstructions to their financial development. It is in this soul we have attempted this examination to decide if there is proof of connection between certain variables and monetary development in china.This exposition presents the information hole to be filled, investigate questions and goals close by the speculations of the investigation. Moreover, it additionally shows to what broaden the investigation is pertinent for China, features the degree and the association of the examination. All the more explicitly, the investigation plans to: †Review the writing on the hypothetical establishment of development: inspecting the diverse model of finan cial development. †Review and depicting some past investigations on certain determinants and the relationship with monetary development. Fundamental objectiveThe key goal of the exploration is to survey the effect of various components that added to the extraordinary financial development of China in the course of recent decades and decide if those variables can be seen as a determinant of monetary development. Association of the investigation This examination is sorted out as follows: Chapter two will give an outline of the Chinese monetary and rundown of the significant floods of changes. The third part will be in two segments, the principal area manages the meaning of development and gives a survey of the development speculations by showing examples of some driving financial analysts on the issue of growth.Among the models contemplated, we have those Harrod-Domar, Solow, and Mankin. The second segment of part tree manages chosen audits on certain pointers that have likely ea sed back or advanced development. In part four presents the information and portrays the technique for investigation embraced to evaluate the determinants of development in China. The introduction and understanding of the outcomes are introduced in Chapter five. This is trailed by Chapter six, the end. Section 2 OVERVIEW OF THE CHINESE ECONOMY According to focal Intelligence office (CIA), China is the second biggest economy after the United States.The nation has encountered an especially solid financial development since the 1980s. Be that as it may, the populace remains moderately poor: in buying power equality, an expected per capita GDP IN 2010 TO 7,400 $ per capita. Driven by the Communist Party since 1949, China has driven since the late 1970s the ability to call a â€Å"socialist showcase economy†. The open area keeps on holding a significant spot in financial life however privately owned businesses are assuming an expanding job and the nation is profoundly incorporated into the worldwide monetary framework. Since 2001, China is an individual from the World Trade Organization.While farming despite everything involves a great part of the work power (in 2010, 39. 5% of Chinese work), it contributed just 9. 6% of

Monday, August 17, 2020

Performance Measurement Reporting An Initial Guide

Performance Measurement Reporting An Initial Guide © | bleakstarPerformance measurement and reporting provides information that is factually based and measures progress, effectiveness of a process while monitoring if outcomes are being achieved.  In this article, we discuss 1) business performance management, 2) performance measurement process, 3) performance measures, 4) performance reporting components, and 5) benefits of performance reporting.BUSINESS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENTBusiness performance management is a set of management processes that analyze and enable a company to achieve set objectives. The purpose of performance management is to improve work performance and encourage individual productivity in organizations, as well as to identify and eliminate ineffective performers as well as recognize strong performers. When a business performance initiative is successful, it helps the organization achieve its desired results with the resources the company has on site.Business performance management has three main activities:Selection of goals: Goal setting improves work motivation. Goal acceptance is necessary and so is moderation of goal setting efforts as well as the progression from setting to attainment.Consolidation of measurement information:   Measurement information collected and analyzed has to be relevant to the organization’s progress as compared to the goal. There is no use, for example, in measuring what sales tactics are accomplishing if the company objective is to become more customer-oriented.Interventions made by managers: As with any other goal, there are times when strategies will not align with tactics, and as such, business managers can intervene to ensure the performance is in line with the goals and objectives decided on by the company.PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT PROCESSA company’s performance measurement process is vital to the decision-making process. As written in handbook you cannot control what you cannot measure and you cannot change what you cannot cont rol. So deficiencies and outdated systems can only be corrected and updated if they are examined and measured against the company’s objectives and desired standards. Measurements then are used by a company for assessment of the processes, reduce variations and control methods, continuously improve the systems in place and manage assessment to ensure goals are being met with efficiency and effectiveness. Companies implementing a solid performance measurement system should follow these principles:Measure what is important, and customer satisfaction is always important.Be customer oriented and focus on meeting those needs. Customers give great feedback, and this can help the firm decide what to measure.Involve your workers in designing and setting up a measurement system, this will help them to feel involved and they will more likely want to uphold the standards and aim to accomplish the goals you set together.There is a cyclical approach to performance measurement that starts with t he management of expectations by outlining the process and defining the expected outcomes. Next, steps should be taken to outline what is important to be measured, what will be impacted and the desired outputs. Following that the managers should continue with the collection of data and develop a strategy that will follow and link levels of performance to the set goals. And once those steps are taken the final part of the cycle is to create an image of what the performance looks like and what is being done whether for maintenance or improvement. Broken down below is the cycle in the form of steps. Once a company follows this route, it will be easier to see how daily acts performed by the company are either adding to the process or deviating from the important objectives.  1. Outline the direction the process will takeIdentifying the direction of the process will offer an understanding of what you are about to measure. Select the processes that impact the business and the customers an d start there.2. Identify the important activity and measure itThe focus should be on key areas and business components, not people. This needs to be controlled because of the impact on productivity, efficiency and quality of other units of measurement3. Establish company’s performance goals, objectives or standardsGoals and standards need to be established to be able to compare logically what is being accomplished. They should be established for various aspects of the company and measured based on the standards set.   They should also be attainable, economic, applicable, consistent, cover all interrelated department activities, understood by those trying to reach them, stable and established, and most of all adaptable so if need arises they can be added to or subtracted from, based on what is required by the customers.4. Establish ways in which to measure performanceEach measurement system should contain a unit of measurement, a sensor (evaluation of actual performance) and a con sistent frequency (number of times measured).5. Name the key department managers involvedIn this step, the decision makers must be labeled and put into place. Various decisions should be made such as how and what data will be collected, who will analyze and report the performance, how to compare the goals and performance and what needs to be done if corrective action is needed.6. Collect relevant informationIn order to support the goals and have cohesive information, useful, and relevant data must be collected. Once collected, however, the leader in charge of data retrieval will need to extract all the necessary information to find all the answers to the questions that will lead to performance measurements. There are two types of data to be collected in this particular process: (1) variable or measured and (2) attributed or counted data.Measured data takes on different values and shows a numeric picture of the business’ process. An example would be the number of hours spent workin g on a problem.But counted data on the other hand does not necessarily present in numeric form. An example of this type of data would be the answer to the question was the solution to the problem found, yes/no?7. Examine and report performanceThe point, of collecting the data, is to gather new insights and draw conclusions. But before this happens the data has to meet the following criteria:ensure data collected answered original questions,locate and remove any bias in the collection process,ensure the correct number of observations were accumulated, andfinally ensure the data is enough to come to meaningful conclusions.The next part of this step is to analyze. Remember, collected data is not necessarily a true reflection of actual performance, so there will likely need to be more than one raw data input to get the true picture. Once the raw data is put into the analytic system, it needs to be grouped into a simple readable and understandable form, either tabular, statistical, graph or in a singular chart as the data needs to be easy to draw conclusions from. Then finally the information and conclusions will be developed into a report.8. Compare goals and performance measuredIn this step, the responsible party has to compare the report to the goals outlined from the start. Are there variances to be corrected? If so, the leader will create his or her report and send it on to the person in charge of making the changes.9. Ensure corrective measures are takenThis step has to do with making a decision; does the leader take action, toss out the recognized variance or make a new set of standards?   The leader can either change the objectives or change the process taken to get to the objectives. A root cause analysis will help to determine what is the best possible solution whether the process is redundant or the goals unrealistic.10. Bring process and goals in line with each otherThis cycle is also known as the feedback loop, and it will close off once the goals and the steps taken are in sync. There is a number of actions that can be taken to ensure the two are working together to bring about the best results. The desired result is always to remove defects and improve the process to achieve the main objective.11. Establish new goals if neededThe step is pretty self-explanatory; if it doesn’t work then it needs to be adjusted. Keep these three features in mind when designing a new performance measurement goals.The degree of success in previous attempts.The changes applied to the process.The ability to adequately communicate improvement relative to the work process.Keep in mind also that goals need to be challenging but achievable and that if previously set standards were impossible to meet then consider adjusting expectations. Do the reverse also for objectives that were easily exceeded. And finally, if there was extensive revamping done to the work process, then there needs to be new performance measures set.PERFORMANCE MEASURESPerformance m easures explain how well product, services and processes are working together to keep customers satisfied. According to Wikipedia, performance measures include the study of processes within a company to see if output is in line with objective.These tools help companies to understand, control and improve or maintain their internal operations. Performance measures tell companies how well they are doing, how satisfied or dissatisfied customers are, whether goals are being met and what if any improvements are necessary.  A performance measure is a number and a unit of measurement, the number, which is called a magnitude, measures how much is being done and the unit tells what is being done. These measures are usually tied to a target (the company’s goals) and can be measured in units such as hours, years, and the number of reports or number of errors. Most of the performance measures used, however, can be placed into one of the following categories.Effectiveness â€" measures if the r ight steps are being taken or, in other words, answers if the product is meeting the requirements.Quality â€" evaluate the degree to which the company’s service or product meets, fails or exceeds customer requirements.Efficiency â€" indicates if the company is doing things right, or in other words are the designated processes producing the desired outcome.Productivity â€" measures the value that is added to a company once it considers and calculates the cost of labor and capital needed to complete the process.Safety â€" is an overall measurement of the health of the organization and the surrounding work environment for employees.Timeliness â€" measures if work was done efficiently and as scheduled. Each unit of work must have set guidelines for timeliness to meet the needs of the customers.PERFORMANCE REPORTING COMPONENTSPerformance reporting is the process of collecting raw data, deciphering the coherence between the goals and process and creating and distributing performance inf ormation to stakeholders. According to, there is an added aspect of reporting and that is the clarification of the use of resources to obtain the goals that have been set. In a performance report clarification should be done alongside the information provided on scope, cost, schedule quality and procurement, as well as the following inputs should be taken into consideration.Data on work performance: This information outlines the work that is being performed, completed recently and what the follow up steps will be.Units of Performance measurement: These measurements include schedule variances, cost variance, cost performance index, schedule performance index and planned value among others. These values help with reporting unbiased and relevant quantifiable information, thus making better reports.Completed forecast: This measure is the predictor of future roadblocks in the process. Forecast completion, or completed forecast is often expressed using two factors: estimate a t completion and estimate to complete, which gives time and amount predictions for completing a project.Measures for quality control: Activities that compare results to quality standards and processes are called quality control measures. These are put in place to ensure the product provided is of the highest quality.Project Management Plan: This contains the performance measurement baseline, which is the basis for approved management control.Requested changes approval: In the change request approval input, any changes that have been approved are ready to be put in place. After project changes have been approved, they need to be placed in front of stakeholders so these changes can be communicated and implemented.Produced actions: These refer to all the actions, results, products associated with producing and completing the task.BENEFITS OF PERFORMANCE REPORTINGPerformance reports help companies to define, set and achieve better performance goals and helps stakeholders manage the risk in investing in this company. The technology-driven process that can be put to analyze the raw data collected and turn it into actionable strategies to help companies with their decision-making process. It comes with a lot more benefits, but it needs to be a main focus of the company that wishes to improve its process.   The report should cover every aspect of the company’s operation from concept to distribution and cover the lifecycle of the business. Various studies that should be included in the report are employee health and safety, social and environmental responsibility, safety of the processes being undertaken and quality and security practices of the company.  By focusing on those areas and including the fundamental components of leadership, risk management, improvement and implementation, while involving the elements of an established structure, an overview of each section of the report, a statement of purpose and set of expected outcomes, business will benefit greatly from their performance reports. Listed below are just a few of the immediate benefits that businesses with continuous performance management and performance measurement, evaluation and reporting can expect to experience.Getting the most out of business practices internallyImproved decision-making processOperational facility improvements due to changesAllows the team to analyze the status of the schedule and budgetContinuous feedback to team members and managersEncourage effective communication with upper management and customersEarly identification of variances to be addressedQuick implementation of corrective measuresAccess to new business and, therefore, new revenueBeating out the competitionSpoting business problems that need to be addressed

Sunday, May 24, 2020

The try-catch-finally Blocks in Java

To make a Java program as robust as possible it needs to be able to handle exceptions. The compiler does its part by not allowing you to compile a program until it is syntactically correct and can also point out checked exceptions that must be handled. But the exceptions that are likely to cause the most headaches are the ones that appear once the program is running. To help handle these exceptions the Java language provides the try-catch-finally blocks. The try Block The tryblock encases any statements that might cause an exception to occur. For example, if you are reading data from a file using the FileReader class, its expected that you handle the IOExceptions associated with using a FileReader object, for example,FileNotFoundExceptionand IOException. To ensure this happens, you can place the statements that deal with creating and using the FileReader object inside a try block:However, the code is incomplete because, in order for the exception to be handled, we need a place for it to be caught. This happens in the catch block.The catch Block The catch block(s)  provide a place to handle the exception thrown by the statements within a try block. The catch block is defined directly after the try block. It must specify the type of exception it is handling. For example, the FileReader object defined in the code above is capable of throwing a FileNotFoundException or an IOException. We can specify two catch blocks to handle both of those exceptions:In the FileNotFoundExceptioncatchblock we could place code to ask the user to find the file for us and then try to read the file again. In the IOException catch block, we might just pass on the I/O error to the user and ask them to try something else. Either way, we have provided a way for the program to catch an exception and handle it in a controlled manner.In Java SE 7, it became possible to handled multiple exceptions in one catch block. If the code we wanted to place in the two catch blocks above was exactly the same we could write the code like this instead:In order to do a bit of housekeeping as far as resources go, we can add a finally block. After all, we want to release the file we have been reading from once we are finished. The finally Block The statements in the finally block are always executed. This is useful to clean up resources in the event of the try block executing without an exception and in the cases when there is an exception. In both eventualities, we can close the file we have been using.   The finally block appears directly after the last catch block:

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Homeless Youth Of The 20th Century Essay - 970 Words

Homeless Youth in the 20th Century There is an inaccurate count of the number of homeless youth individuals are currently in America. They only account for those who are in the shelter’s system, which is a small portion of the total population of homeless youth. One report estimated that only one in twelve homeless youth ever come into contact with the shelter system (Somllar, 1999). The main focus is on â€Å"street youth† who are still on the streets with no home, and no adult guidance. The downfall of the system is that it is based on coming in contact with homeless youth, instead of building a rapport with them, and getting an understanding of why they leave home. The causes for the youth to become homeless are as follows; neglect, physical, sexual, and substance abuse, dysfunctional families, as well as family violence. These are often results of suicide, poor coping skills, lack of education, criminal background, and mental health problems. Homeless youth who are homosexual have been found to have a greater and more severe incidence such as depression and suicide than other homeless youth population. In one study of homeless street youth, 53 percent of homosexual adolescents had attempted suicide, compared to 32 percent of a cohort that did not differentiate individuals by sexual orientation (Somllar, 1999). The history of homelessness shows those who were homeless in the early development of the United States, were homeless from seeking adventure and employment as well asShow MoreRelatedThe Link Between Homelessness And Mental Health983 Words   |  4 Pagesissues in the United States. The research suggests that approximately one-third of the homeless population has a significant mental health diagnosis such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression. Mental health issues can impact anyone. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Race, Ethnicity, Prejudice Free Essays

Race, Ethnicity, and Prejudice-Online Project At one point in time the U. S. Census defined someone as a â€Å"negro† if they were one-sixteenth black. We will write a custom essay sample on Race, Ethnicity, Prejudice or any similar topic only for you Order Now That is, if one of your sixteen great-great grandparents was of African descent (and the other fifteen were of â€Å"white† European descent), you were defined as â€Å"negro†. In Jamaica, people believed to be of â€Å"pure† African descent are described as black. People who are bi-racial are usually described as â€Å"colored†. In Brazil, there are even more differentiations of those believed to be of African descent. The point of all this is that our definitions are culture-bound and socially constructed. They are, therefore, not particularly scientific and change over time. This does not mean that race and ethnicity have no real meaning. They have meaning because we give them meaning. 1. What method do census enumerators use to classify people according to race? A census enumerator is a person who collects census data. Before 1960, census enumerators were themselves responsible for classifying people according to race. However, in 1960 there was a switch to self-reporting. From this point on, individuals were in control of classifying themselves. It was no longer the census enumerators who classified individuals, but individuals who classified themselves. Census enumerators would just compile the results. 2. Which categories of ethnicity are used by the census bureau? The categories of ethnicity and race used by the census bureau have undergone numerous changes over the years. At first, from 1790 to 1880, the census recorded only â€Å"color. † During this time period it was a person’s skin color that was of importance and there were three categories: White, Black, and Mulatto. The categories expanded in 1890 and consisted of five gradations: Black, Mulatto, Quadroon, Octoroon, and White. It was in 1900 that the word â€Å"race† actually appeared in the census. The question now asked for each person’s â€Å"color or race. † At this time the census used only two categories: White and Black. It wasn’t until 1950 that the word â€Å"color† was completely dropped and the census only asked for the person’s race. In 1960 people were able to classify themselves. Shortly following the census added the category â€Å"other. In 1977 there were four racial categories established: American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Black, and White. Plus there was the â€Å"Other† category. Also, the census added two ethnicity categories: Hispanic origin and Not of Hispanic origin. 3. How have categories changed for the 2000 Census? Since 1977, the racial and ethnic makeup of the country changed significantly. There were no questions as to whether the previous standards still reflected the diversity that was present in the United States. So, with that, the categories for the 2000 census were revised. The categories now consisted of: American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; and White. The category of â€Å"Some Other Race† is also included. In regards to ethnicity, there are two categories: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino. Aside from changes in the categories, another significant change for the 2000 census is that respondents are allowed to check off multiple â€Å"race† boxes. 4. What problems do you see with the Census definitions? The diversity in our society is increasing. Putting people in categories is becoming more problematic because the categories are arbitrary; none of the groups have clear or unambiguous boundaries. Classifying people into a certain category is restrictive and doesn’t take into account that â€Å"people classified as â€Å"Asian and Pacific Islander† represent scores of different national and linguistic backgrounds, and â€Å"American Indian or Alaska Native† includes people from hundreds of different tribal groups† (Healey 13). The census definitions are very limiting and they don’t do diversity justice. Also, there is still no place for a number of groups among the categories listed. For example, where should we place Arab Americans and recent immigrants from Africa? † (Healey 13). I understand that it is unrealistic to have a category for every single group, but we should realize that the definitions used by the census, the classification schemes, have limited utility and application. In addition, there is a growing number of mixed-race individuals for whom there are no categories. Although currently that number is relatively small, it is projected to increase rapidly due to a growing number of marriages across group lines. How should those individuals be classified? Sources: Healey, Joseph F. (2010). Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. (5th Ed. ). Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc. Sweet, Frank W. (2011, Feb. 25). A Brief History of Census â€Å"Race†. Retrieved from http://knol. google. com/k/a-brief-history-of-census-race U. S. Census Bureau, Population Division. Racial and Ethnic Classifications Used in Census 2000 and Beyond. Retrieved from http://www. census. gov/population/www/socdemo/race/racefactcb. html How to cite Race, Ethnicity, Prejudice, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Freuds Theory of the Interpretation of Dreams free essay sample

I believe that no one can relate to the concept of death fully until they experience a personal loss such as this magnitude, just as Freud had to experience the death of his father before writing his theory on dreams. It has been almost six months since my Papa passed away which is strange in the sense that I expect him to call me at any moment, though I obviously know he is no longer here. I sometimes dream about my Papa, which is a mixture of reality and fantasy. For example, I remember going with him to see the U. S. Battleship in Wilmington, N. C. and I dreamt that we were going there again, however in the dream while we are on the Battleship he has a heart attack and dies. I’m terrified because I don’t know what to do, in the movies there is always a doctor nearby to save the day, but in this case no one is around but my mom. We will write a custom essay sample on Freuds Theory of the Interpretation of Dreams or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I scream for her and she comes running, but it is too late, Papa is gone. Freud states that â€Å"If anyone dreams that his father or mother†¦has died, nd his dream expresses grief,†¦.. it is satisfied with concluding that the dreamer has wished them dead at some time or other during his childhood. † (P49) I do not agree with this statement, for I knew for months leading up to my Papa’s passing that his health was fading and the doctors gave him less than six months. I dreamt he passed away before he actually did but that does not mean I have ever wanted him to die which is what I gather Freud is saying from the above quote. Freud goes on to talk about siblings wishing their counterparts’ dead mostly out of jealousy. I do not know if this is true or not, I do know that I am two months shy of being 14 years old and I have a baby brother who will turn one year old in a few weeks. I admit I was surprised that my mom was going to have another baby and I thought when he was born he would be annoying, but I have never felt jealous of him or wish him dead. And now that Sebastian is here I don’t understand why siblings fight with one another like they do. My mom says it is because there is such a huge age difference between us that it voids out the fighting over toys and wants as things I want like the newest Alien ware laptop is not the same as his wants, which he is happy with slobbering on stuffed animals. Maybe she is right, but the point is I don’t agree with Freud on sibling jealousy though I notice at the end of the paragraph he is quick to say â€Å" this attitude of the child towards the younger†¦is a mere function of the difference of age. † (Page50) Freud states on page 56 â€Å"Parents play a leading part in the infantile psychology of all persons who subsequently become psychoneurotics. Falling in love with one parent and hating the other forms part of the permanent stock of the psychic impulses which arise in early childhood, and are of such importance as the material of the subsequent neurosis. † My parents divorced when I was one year old, and my mom and step dad met a year later. All of my childhood memories are of my mom and step dad so I am not sure what Freud means†¦is that strictly for biological parents? Or does it include step parents that actually raised the child? Does nurture v nature come into play? So I am not sure how to respond to this particular quote of Freud which is why I mention it. Overall Freud obviously has contributed greatly to society pioneering the way for others to follow. The only thing I find strange is how he constantly relates everything to a sexual nature and why he considered Cat holism so bad, is it because he was Jewish?