Sunday, May 24, 2020

The try-catch-finally Blocks in Java

To make a Java program as robust as possible it needs to be able to handle exceptions. The compiler does its part by not allowing you to compile a program until it is syntactically correct and can also point out checked exceptions that must be handled. But the exceptions that are likely to cause the most headaches are the ones that appear once the program is running. To help handle these exceptions the Java language provides the try-catch-finally blocks. The try Block The tryblock encases any statements that might cause an exception to occur. For example, if you are reading data from a file using the FileReader class, its expected that you handle the IOExceptions associated with using a FileReader object, for example,FileNotFoundExceptionand IOException. To ensure this happens, you can place the statements that deal with creating and using the FileReader object inside a try block:However, the code is incomplete because, in order for the exception to be handled, we need a place for it to be caught. This happens in the catch block.The catch Block The catch block(s)  provide a place to handle the exception thrown by the statements within a try block. The catch block is defined directly after the try block. It must specify the type of exception it is handling. For example, the FileReader object defined in the code above is capable of throwing a FileNotFoundException or an IOException. We can specify two catch blocks to handle both of those exceptions:In the FileNotFoundExceptioncatchblock we could place code to ask the user to find the file for us and then try to read the file again. In the IOException catch block, we might just pass on the I/O error to the user and ask them to try something else. Either way, we have provided a way for the program to catch an exception and handle it in a controlled manner.In Java SE 7, it became possible to handled multiple exceptions in one catch block. If the code we wanted to place in the two catch blocks above was exactly the same we could write the code like this instead:In order to do a bit of housekeeping as far as resources go, we can add a finally block. After all, we want to release the file we have been reading from once we are finished. The finally Block The statements in the finally block are always executed. This is useful to clean up resources in the event of the try block executing without an exception and in the cases when there is an exception. In both eventualities, we can close the file we have been using.   The finally block appears directly after the last catch block:

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

Homeless Youth Of The 20th Century Essay - 970 Words

Homeless Youth in the 20th Century There is an inaccurate count of the number of homeless youth individuals are currently in America. They only account for those who are in the shelter’s system, which is a small portion of the total population of homeless youth. One report estimated that only one in twelve homeless youth ever come into contact with the shelter system (Somllar, 1999). The main focus is on â€Å"street youth† who are still on the streets with no home, and no adult guidance. The downfall of the system is that it is based on coming in contact with homeless youth, instead of building a rapport with them, and getting an understanding of why they leave home. The causes for the youth to become homeless are as follows; neglect, physical, sexual, and substance abuse, dysfunctional families, as well as family violence. These are often results of suicide, poor coping skills, lack of education, criminal background, and mental health problems. Homeless youth who are homosexual have been found to have a greater and more severe incidence such as depression and suicide than other homeless youth population. In one study of homeless street youth, 53 percent of homosexual adolescents had attempted suicide, compared to 32 percent of a cohort that did not differentiate individuals by sexual orientation (Somllar, 1999). The history of homelessness shows those who were homeless in the early development of the United States, were homeless from seeking adventure and employment as well asShow MoreRelatedThe Link Between Homelessness And Mental Health983 Words   |  4 Pagesissues in the United States. The research suggests that approximately one-third of the homeless population has a significant mental health diagnosis such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression. Mental health issues can impact anyone. However, those who remain untreated and have additional risk factors such as lower socioeconomic conditions or substance abuse issues are more likely to become homeless. The research also suggests that men have a higher rate of homelessness than women.Read MoreHomelessness : Poverty And Lack Of Permanent And Stable Housing1244 Words   |  5 Pagestheir cars, and family or friends homes or in shelters. According to the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), a homeless person is an individual who does not a have a permanent residence place, but rather has a temporary nighttime residence which is not designed for the accommodation of human beings (National Health Care for the Homeless Council, n.d.) Such nighttime residences include abandoned buildings, camping grounds, car parks and bus stations among others. Other agenciesRead MoreMental Health For The Mentally Ill999 Words   |  4 Pagesuntreated mental health issues in the United States. The research suggests that approximately one-third of the homeless population has a significant mental health diagnosis such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depression. However, those who remain untreated and have additional risk factors such as lower socioeconomic conditions or substance abuse issues are more likely to become homeless. The research also suggests that men have a higher rate of homelessness than women. In particular, AfricanRead MoreThe Main Reason For Runaway And Homeles s Youth Essay1409 Words   |  6 PagesThe main reason for runaway and homeless youth in the U.S. is because of the lack of freedom within their homes. Runaway youth are usually teenagers and are perfectly capable of thinking rationally about short term and long term effects of their decision to leave home. Therefore, runaway youth leave their homes and lead a successful life out in the real world. Agencies like WaveC.R.E.S.T enable teens to think running away is fine. â€Å"Thousands of children, dirty, malnourished and alone, boardedRead MoreRace Riots : Violence Based On Race1700 Words   |  7 Pagesriots have been experienced since the pre-revolution period in the 18th century. These race riots were rampant and more pronounced in the mid-19th century, when violence broke out between two groups; the Irish Catholic immigrants who had arrived in U.S and the Protestant Nativists. In the early 20th century, these forms of violence were also experienced against the French-Canadian and the Irish in Rhode Island. In the 19th century race riots just like lynching had their roots on the whites defendingRead MoreThe Effects Of Today s Media On The Homeless Community Essay1696 Words   |  7 PagesThe Effect of Today’s Media On the Homeless Community Brad Jones Cisco College Introduction In today’s society, you see an outstanding amount of homelessness in the streets with no sign of stopping anytime in the near future. These numbers continue to climb with the majority of people blaming it on the homeless individual either being too lazy to get a college (sometimes even high school) degree, too lazy to go and at least try to get a job or a combination of both. With this thought process inRead MoreThe City Of Overtown Florida Is Located Northwest Of Downtown1302 Words   |  6 PagesOvertown is one of Miami’s original neighborhoods, where African Americans settled in the early 20th Century and built churches, restaurants, residences, nightclubs and theaters (City of Miami, 2016). The community has seen a decline in recent years as it struggles with crime, an increase in the vagrant and homeless population and increase in lower income families in the area. This paper will assess the homeless population in regards to the health risk associated with this c ommunity. Vunerable PopulationRead MoreActs of Violence by American Youth: A Result of Culture, Media, and Capitalism776 Words   |  3 Pages Course title and number Professors name Due date Acts of Violence by American Youth Research Paper Outline Thesis Statement: The proliferation of violence committed by American youth demonstrates tight connections among culture, media, and capitalism creating unique circumstances that result in excessive violence and rage relative to other youth around the world. I. Introduction Juvenile Criminals Youth Violence A. Juvenile crime is not new. Juveniles have committed crimes for as longRead MoreBelonging Essay1048 Words   |  5 Pagesalienation and loss on her temperament. By contrast, Raimond, Romulus and Hora come to share an ingrained sense of idealistic congruency, â€Å"I learnt from them the connection between individuality and†¦Otherness†. Here, â€Å"Otherness† – an allusion to 20th Century European philosophy – is paired with the connotations of â€Å"individuality† to highlight the fact that Romulus and Hora’s relationship is based upon an analogous self-conception, which acts to reaffirm Romulus’s values and beliefs. Most importantlyRead MoreInvisible Man By Ralph Ellison1366 Words   |  6 Pagesimaginative use of objects, symbols, allusions, and the actions, thoughts, and purposes of the spectators, pugilists and risquà © entertainment, Ellison seeks to express a powerful image of American race relations and women s stratum in the early 20th century. The feeling of superiority and disgust felt by Invisible Man before the bout serves as a metaphor reinforcing the main undertone of the entire scene, the lack of black unity against the horrifying sins of white oppression. Invisible Man shows

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Race, Ethnicity, Prejudice Free Essays

Race, Ethnicity, and Prejudice-Online Project At one point in time the U. S. Census defined someone as a â€Å"negro† if they were one-sixteenth black. We will write a custom essay sample on Race, Ethnicity, Prejudice or any similar topic only for you Order Now That is, if one of your sixteen great-great grandparents was of African descent (and the other fifteen were of â€Å"white† European descent), you were defined as â€Å"negro†. In Jamaica, people believed to be of â€Å"pure† African descent are described as black. People who are bi-racial are usually described as â€Å"colored†. In Brazil, there are even more differentiations of those believed to be of African descent. The point of all this is that our definitions are culture-bound and socially constructed. They are, therefore, not particularly scientific and change over time. This does not mean that race and ethnicity have no real meaning. They have meaning because we give them meaning. 1. What method do census enumerators use to classify people according to race? A census enumerator is a person who collects census data. Before 1960, census enumerators were themselves responsible for classifying people according to race. However, in 1960 there was a switch to self-reporting. From this point on, individuals were in control of classifying themselves. It was no longer the census enumerators who classified individuals, but individuals who classified themselves. Census enumerators would just compile the results. 2. Which categories of ethnicity are used by the census bureau? The categories of ethnicity and race used by the census bureau have undergone numerous changes over the years. At first, from 1790 to 1880, the census recorded only â€Å"color. † During this time period it was a person’s skin color that was of importance and there were three categories: White, Black, and Mulatto. The categories expanded in 1890 and consisted of five gradations: Black, Mulatto, Quadroon, Octoroon, and White. It was in 1900 that the word â€Å"race† actually appeared in the census. The question now asked for each person’s â€Å"color or race. † At this time the census used only two categories: White and Black. It wasn’t until 1950 that the word â€Å"color† was completely dropped and the census only asked for the person’s race. In 1960 people were able to classify themselves. Shortly following the census added the category â€Å"other. In 1977 there were four racial categories established: American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Black, and White. Plus there was the â€Å"Other† category. Also, the census added two ethnicity categories: Hispanic origin and Not of Hispanic origin. 3. How have categories changed for the 2000 Census? Since 1977, the racial and ethnic makeup of the country changed significantly. There were no questions as to whether the previous standards still reflected the diversity that was present in the United States. So, with that, the categories for the 2000 census were revised. The categories now consisted of: American Indian or Alaska Native; Asian; Black or African American; Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander; and White. The category of â€Å"Some Other Race† is also included. In regards to ethnicity, there are two categories: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino. Aside from changes in the categories, another significant change for the 2000 census is that respondents are allowed to check off multiple â€Å"race† boxes. 4. What problems do you see with the Census definitions? The diversity in our society is increasing. Putting people in categories is becoming more problematic because the categories are arbitrary; none of the groups have clear or unambiguous boundaries. Classifying people into a certain category is restrictive and doesn’t take into account that â€Å"people classified as â€Å"Asian and Pacific Islander† represent scores of different national and linguistic backgrounds, and â€Å"American Indian or Alaska Native† includes people from hundreds of different tribal groups† (Healey 13). The census definitions are very limiting and they don’t do diversity justice. Also, there is still no place for a number of groups among the categories listed. For example, where should we place Arab Americans and recent immigrants from Africa? † (Healey 13). I understand that it is unrealistic to have a category for every single group, but we should realize that the definitions used by the census, the classification schemes, have limited utility and application. In addition, there is a growing number of mixed-race individuals for whom there are no categories. Although currently that number is relatively small, it is projected to increase rapidly due to a growing number of marriages across group lines. How should those individuals be classified? Sources: Healey, Joseph F. (2010). Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. (5th Ed. ). Pine Forge Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc. Sweet, Frank W. (2011, Feb. 25). A Brief History of Census â€Å"Race†. Retrieved from http://knol. google. com/k/a-brief-history-of-census-race U. S. Census Bureau, Population Division. Racial and Ethnic Classifications Used in Census 2000 and Beyond. Retrieved from http://www. census. gov/population/www/socdemo/race/racefactcb. html How to cite Race, Ethnicity, Prejudice, Essay examples

Monday, May 4, 2020

Freuds Theory of the Interpretation of Dreams free essay sample

I believe that no one can relate to the concept of death fully until they experience a personal loss such as this magnitude, just as Freud had to experience the death of his father before writing his theory on dreams. It has been almost six months since my Papa passed away which is strange in the sense that I expect him to call me at any moment, though I obviously know he is no longer here. I sometimes dream about my Papa, which is a mixture of reality and fantasy. For example, I remember going with him to see the U. S. Battleship in Wilmington, N. C. and I dreamt that we were going there again, however in the dream while we are on the Battleship he has a heart attack and dies. I’m terrified because I don’t know what to do, in the movies there is always a doctor nearby to save the day, but in this case no one is around but my mom. We will write a custom essay sample on Freuds Theory of the Interpretation of Dreams or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I scream for her and she comes running, but it is too late, Papa is gone. Freud states that â€Å"If anyone dreams that his father or mother†¦has died, nd his dream expresses grief,†¦.. it is satisfied with concluding that the dreamer has wished them dead at some time or other during his childhood. † (P49) I do not agree with this statement, for I knew for months leading up to my Papa’s passing that his health was fading and the doctors gave him less than six months. I dreamt he passed away before he actually did but that does not mean I have ever wanted him to die which is what I gather Freud is saying from the above quote. Freud goes on to talk about siblings wishing their counterparts’ dead mostly out of jealousy. I do not know if this is true or not, I do know that I am two months shy of being 14 years old and I have a baby brother who will turn one year old in a few weeks. I admit I was surprised that my mom was going to have another baby and I thought when he was born he would be annoying, but I have never felt jealous of him or wish him dead. And now that Sebastian is here I don’t understand why siblings fight with one another like they do. My mom says it is because there is such a huge age difference between us that it voids out the fighting over toys and wants as things I want like the newest Alien ware laptop is not the same as his wants, which he is happy with slobbering on stuffed animals. Maybe she is right, but the point is I don’t agree with Freud on sibling jealousy though I notice at the end of the paragraph he is quick to say â€Å" this attitude of the child towards the younger†¦is a mere function of the difference of age. † (Page50) Freud states on page 56 â€Å"Parents play a leading part in the infantile psychology of all persons who subsequently become psychoneurotics. Falling in love with one parent and hating the other forms part of the permanent stock of the psychic impulses which arise in early childhood, and are of such importance as the material of the subsequent neurosis. † My parents divorced when I was one year old, and my mom and step dad met a year later. All of my childhood memories are of my mom and step dad so I am not sure what Freud means†¦is that strictly for biological parents? Or does it include step parents that actually raised the child? Does nurture v nature come into play? So I am not sure how to respond to this particular quote of Freud which is why I mention it. Overall Freud obviously has contributed greatly to society pioneering the way for others to follow. The only thing I find strange is how he constantly relates everything to a sexual nature and why he considered Cat holism so bad, is it because he was Jewish?

Sunday, March 29, 2020

Men will be Women Essays - Gender, Masculinity, Literature, Biology

Men will be Women Being men means something today that is completely different to the definition of past generations; This is true for any time period. Primitively, being a man meant to be fearless and tough in order to protect and feed their people, it was male nature. As time progresses, this definition was ever so slightly modified to a point where men are expected to be tamed and act as a male version of women. Men are animals by nature, and like animals men require certain necessities in order to keep calm. Chuck Palahniuk, in his book titled Fight Club, using toxic masculinity explores a fictional scenario in which men find a way to release this primitive tension and masculinity stored through the years from a macro-perspective in order to escape from a world where men are expected to suppress their male nature. Men are no longer the image of strong figures that put their lives in danger every day in order to provide and protect their people. From a macro-perspective, men have been changed alongside history itself in order to better fit social standards set by women. Fight Club explores toxic masculinity, the side of men that is not good for society. According to Harris O'Malley in his article titled, " The Difference Between Toxic Masculinity and Being A Man", Toxic masculinity is a concept with questionable origins that describes men who do not live up social standards, " for many people, the toxic ideas of masculinity are synonymous with being a man"(par 4). To simply be men is already a big offense. From a macro-perspective, men have been driven to avoid male nature by slowly turning men into what is believed to be the ideal man, a female version of men. From a micro-perspective, a male child told that he cannot cry because it is not the manly thing to d o, will store all the tension and eventually release it all at once. This is true for all the expectations for men today: boys will be boys, men think about sex every 7 seconds, men can't be friends with women, real men fight, etc. According to Kali Holloway , in her article titled "Toxic Masculinity Is Killing Men: The Roots of Men and Trauma", "...male infants actually behave in ways our society defines as feminine' " (par. 3), furthermore proving that we are both unconsciously and consciously driving men since childhood to be female. Kali Holloway states that "... social constructions of femininity demand that women be thin, beautiful, accommodating, and some unattainable balance of virginal and fuckable, social constructions of masculinity demand that men constantly prove and re-prove the very fact that they are, well, men" (par. 1), stating that men are not the only affected by social standards. Women are also affected, some may argue that even more than men. Holloway s tates, " B oth ideas are poisonous and potentially destructive, but statistically speaking, the number of addicted and afflicted men and their comparatively shorter lifespans proves masculinity is actually the more effective killer"(par 2). Though women may or may not be affected by more social standards, they are free to express their opinion and feelings on the matter. On the other hand, "...[men] are not only told they should suppress their emotions, but that their manliness essentially depends on them doing so" (par 7). Being a man means something completely different today, than it did the past generations. Being a man depends whether or not you can act according to female nature and the standards set by said nature. In Fight Club , the narrator finds the way to express his male nature through the way of Tyler, a persona created within himself. Tyler could do as he pleased and explore male nature at will, something the narrator has never been able to do. The narrator is the representation of men trapped in the standards of society that find a way to break free from such standards. Palahniuk describes the narrator as the way men should be according to social standards: white, heterosexual, with a degree, a job, and a furnished apartment. When the narrator realizes he checked all the boxed for the ideal man,

Saturday, March 7, 2020

Developing Coaching Skills for the Workplace

Developing Coaching Skills for the Workplace Creative Writing on Developing Coaching Skills for the Workplace: A coaching culture is an organizational progress model. It provides the structure that defines how the organization’s members can smoothly interact with their work atmosphere. It also encompasses how to achieve the best results from the coaching experience and apply it in the organization. Culture within an organization serves as the backbone for coaching to take place amicably and acceptably by all members. Several methods exist for developing a coaching culture in an organization. This study will take an in-depth analysis of two ways of developing a coaching culture in an organization. The first one is to bring in managers and leaders who can role model the coaching process. This is because, in trying to change an already entrenched culture in an organization, at some point the issue of scale comes up. In coaching, scale presents a challenge in the senses that, a large number of people need to initiate, grow and sustain cultural change. This calls for selecting the right people, invest in their development and site them as role models for the new coaching tradition. This creates a cycle whereby those who have already been coached take the mantle and pass it to those behind them. Studies have proven this method to be highly efficient in creating a coaching culture within an organization. It also has the advantage of cost effectiveness since it involves training select groups of people, as opposed to all the employees in the organization (Anderson, 13). Another way of establishing a coaching culture in an organization is to link coaching outcomes to the business. This calls for closing the gap between the effectiveness of coaching outcomes and overall business objectives. For this to be done effectively, strategic goals and tactics need to be developed around coaching, and specific` performance metrics be developed for coaching behaviors. By doing this, the coaching process is given impetus as individuals feel the link between what the organization expects from the coaching process and what they are involved in. The best way to achieve coaching success through this method is probably by aligning management behavior with organizational objectives. It is usually axiomatic that senior management’s individual behavior and the overall team behavior models and shapes the organizational culture (Anderson, 14). In most cases, the behavior exhibited by the senior management is what other members of staff tend to consequently follow. In this case, for the coaching culture to take root, the top management both individually and collectively need to recreate their image. They need to remodel themselves along a culture geared towards coaching and learning (Anderson, 14). In conclusion, it is clear that, coaching is one of the ways of increasing knowledge and competence within an organization. For coaching to be conducted effectively, it should be done in a systematic manner. Several ways exist for conducting coaching at an overall organizational level. From the two methods discussed above, it is clear that, for a cultural change to occur, the top management needs to be proactive. For one, they need to act as role models in the coaching process so that other employees’ can follow. They also need to come up with policies that link coaching programs to the overall organizational objectives. This way, an organization can be transformed towards one in which a coaching is accepted as the norm.

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Embracing Diversity Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Embracing Diversity - Essay Example In order to teach the future generations successfully, the education structure should be thriving in educating all children to interact and communicate with people from diverse backgrounds and with diverse abilities. Early childhood teachers all over the United States should be prepared to educate an increasingly diverse populace of young students. More children from migrant families are taking part in early childhood programs than in the past, and the trend is anticipated to carry on into the next decade. The 2000 population census shows that in only one decade, the number of young students in immigrant households increased by 63%, and not only in large cities, but also in numerous areas of the country. The African American populace both immigrant and nonimmigrant grew at a rate above that of the general populace between 1990 and the new millennium. The Latino population likewise the immigrants and nonimmigrants grew by more than 50% of its original during those same years. The Lati no population is at the moment the single largest cluster contributing to the country’s diversity (Terry & Iriving, 2009). This article concerns the education of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds who might or might not have disabilities, which need special education services. For culturally, as well as linguistically diverse students (CLD), issues of difference, diversity, and disability can rather be challenging and complex for classroom teachers (Gonzalez, 2011). This paper, with an aim of easing these challenges, will formulate some methods and strategies of achieving the paper’s objective and discuss how the strategies will be assessed. Researchers have referred to the manner culture plays itself out in a classroom set up as a hidden curriculum. The traditional norms which govern classroom communication are mainly rooted in European or American middle-class principles. Regularly there is an inherent anticipation that every student will use t hese customs, even though they are not openly trained in the classroom. Teachers must know that CLD learners also have cultural values and norms, which they also carry into the classroom and might conflict with the educator’s hopes (Gonzalez, 2011). Educators are in the best position to learn about the norms, values and culture of their CLD learners. By having a concern in who the students are, the place they come from, as well as what their worldview is, educators can demonstrate to them that they essentially care about who they are and not only who they can become. Attitudes associated with privilege, status and power can make it tough for some teachers to value diversity among their learners (Ray & Bowman, 2003). For example, students who might be members of a marginalized racial group, economically deprived, or speak English as a secondary language are frequently labeled as vulnerable, poor, disadvantaged or unfortunate. Rather than centering on what learners cannot do, e ducators are encouraged to recognize more regarding their learners’ abilities and strengths (Ray & Bowman, 2003). Nevertheless, centering on what students know needs learning more concerning their traditions and the knowledge, which they take into the classroom. Teachers can then utilize their students’ interests, experiences and background to grow ethnically relevant pedagogy (Terry & Iriving, 2009). Culturally